Marketing Воскресенье, 21.10.2018, 15:26
Приветствую Вас Гость | RSS
Главная | Kitabxana | Регистрация | Вход
» Меню сайта

» Категории каталога
Menecment [11]
Marketing [10]
Strateji planlaşdırma [9]
Azərbaycan tarixi [9]
Pedaqogika [4]
iqtisadiyyat [20]
Riyaziyyat və informatika [7]
Xarici dil [2]
Hüquq [38]
Qanunlar və direktiv sənədlər [3]
Humanitar fənnlər [0]

» Наш опрос
Оцените мой сайт
Cavabların sayı: 1313

Главная » Файлы » Kitablar » Menecment

[ ] 05.10.2008, 11:03



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Management (disambiguation).

Management comprises planning, organizing, resourcing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources.

Management can also refer to the person or people who perform the act(s) of management.

  * 1 Overview
  o 1.1 Theoretical scope
  o 1.2 Nature of managerial work 
  * 2 Historical development
  o 2.1 Early writing
  + 2.1.1 Sun Tzu's The Art of War
  + 2.1.2 Niccolò Machiavelli's The Prince
  + 2.1.3 Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations 
  o 2.2 19th century
  o 2.3 20th century
  o 2.4 21st century 
  * 3 Management topics
  o 3.1 Basic functions of management
  o 3.2 Formation of the business policy
  + 3.2.1 How to implement policies and strategies
  + 3.2.2 The development of policies and strategies
  + 3.2.3 Where policies and strategies fit into the planning process 
  o 3.3 Managerial levels and hierarchy 
  * 4 Areas and categories and implementations of management
  * 5 See also
  * 6 References
  * 7 External links 

[edit] Overview

The verb manage comes from the Italian maneggiare (to handle — especially a horse), which in turn derives from the Latin manus (hand). The French word mesnagement (later ménagement) influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18th centuries.[1]

[edit] Theoretical scope

Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933), who wrote on the topic in the early twentieth century, defined management as "the art of getting things done through people".[2] One can also think of management functionally, as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan; or as the actions taken to reach one's intended goal. This applies even in situations where planning does not take place. From this perspective, Frenchman Henri Fayol[3] considers management to consist of five functions:

  1. planning
  2. organizing
  3. leading
  4. co-ordinating
  5. controlling 

Some people, however, find this definition, while useful, far too narrow. The phrase "management is what managers do" occurs widely, suggesting the difficulty of defining management, the shifting nature of definitions, and the connection of managerial practices with the existence of a managerial cadre or class.

One habit of thought regards management as equivalent to "business administration" and thus excludes management in places outside commerce, as for example in charities and in the public sector. More realistically, however, every organization must manage its work, people, processes, technology, etc. in order to maximize its effectiveness. Nonetheless, many people refer to university departments which teach management as "business schools." Some institutions (such as the Harvard Business School) use that name while others (such as the Yale School of Management) employ the more inclusive term "management."

Speakers of English may also use the term "management" or "the management" as a collective word describing the managers of an organization, for example of a corporation. Historically this use of the term was often contrasted with the term "Labor" referring to those being managed.

[edit] Nature of managerial work
 The neutrality of this section is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.
This section has been tagged since December 2007.

In for-profit work, management has as its primary function the satisfaction of a range of stakeholders. This typically involves making a profit (for the shareholders), creating valued products at a reasonable cost (for customers), and providing rewarding employment opportunities (for employees). In nonprofit management, add the importance of keeping the faith of donors. In most models of management/governance, shareholders vote for the board of directors, and the board then hires senior management. Some organizations have experimented with other methods (such as employee-voting models) of selecting or reviewing managers; but this occurs only very rarely.

In the public sector of countries constituted as representative democracies, voters elect politicians to public office. Such politicians hire many managers and administrators, and in some countries like the United States political appointees lose their jobs on the election of a new president/governor/mayor. Some 2500 people serve at the pleasure of the United States Chief Executive, including all of the top US government executives.

Public, private, and voluntary sectors place different demands on managers, but all must retain the faith of those who select them (if they wish to retain their jobs), retain the faith of those people that fund the organization, and retain the faith of those who work for the organization. If they fail to convince employees of the advantages of staying rather than leaving, they may tip the organization into a downward spiral of hiring, training, firing, and recruiting. Management also has the task of innovating and of improving the functioning of organizations.

[edit] Historical development

Difficulties arise in tracing the history of management. Some see it (by definition) as a late modern (in the sense of late modernity) conceptualization. On those terms it cannot have a pre-modern history, only harbingers (such as stewards). Others, however, detect management-like activities in the pre-modern past. Some writers[who?] trace the development of management-thought back to Sumerian traders and to the builders of the pyramids of ancient Egypt. Slave-owners through the centuries faced the problems of exploiting/motivating a dependent but sometimes unenthusiastic or recalcitrant workforce, but many pre-industrial enterprises, given their small scale, did not feel compelled to face the issues of management systematically. However, innovations such as the spread of Hindu-Arabic numerals (5th to 15th centuries) and the codification of double-entry book-keeping (1494) provided tools for management assessment, planning and control.

Given the scale of most commercial operations and the lack of mechanized record-keeping and recording before the industrial revolution, it made sense for most owners of enterprises in those times to carry out management functions by and for themselves. But with growing size and complexity of organizations, the split between owners (individuals, industrial dynasties or groups of shareholders) and day-to-day managers (independent specialists in planning and control) gradually became more common.

[edit] Early writing

While management has been present for millennia, several writers have created a background of works that assisted in modern management theories.[4]

[edit] Sun Tzu's The Art of War

Written by Chinese general Sun Tzu in the 6th century BCE, The Art of War is a military strategy book that, for managerial purposes, recommends being aware of and acting on strengths and weaknesses of both a manager's organization and a foe's.[4]

[edit] Niccolò Machiavelli's The Prince

Believing that people were motivated by self-interest, Niccolò Machiavelli wrote The Prince in 1513 as advice for the leadership of Florence, Italy.[5] Machiavelli recommended that leaders use fear—but not hatred—to maintain control.

[edit] Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations

Written in 1776 by Adam Smith, a Scottish moral philosopher, The Wealth of Nations aims for efficient organization of work through division of labor.[5] Smith described how changes in processes could boost productivity in the manufacture of pins. While individuals could produce 200 pins per day, Smith analyzed the steps involved in manufacture and, with 10 specialists, enabled production of 48,000 pins per day.[5]

[edit] 19th century

Some argue[citation needed] that modern management as a discipline began as an off-shoot of economics in the 19th century. Classical economists such as Adam Smith (1723 - 1790) and John Stuart Mill (1806 - 1873) provided a theoretical background to resource-allocation, production, and pricing issues. About the same time, innovators like Eli Whitney (1765 - 1825), James Watt (1736 - 1819), and Matthew Boulton (1728 - 1809) developed elements of technical production such as standardization, quality-control procedures, cost-accounting, interchangeability of parts, and work-planning. Many of these aspects of management existed in the pre-1861 slave-based sector of the US economy. That environment saw 4 million people, as the contemporary usages had it, "managed" in profitable quasi-mass production.

By the late 19th century, marginal economists Alfred Marshall (1842 - 1924) and Léon Walras (1834 - 1910) and others introduced a new layer of complexity to the theoretical underpinnings of management. Joseph Wharton offered the first tertiary-level course in management in 1881.

[edit] 20th century

By about 1900 one finds managers trying to place their theories on what they regarded as a thoroughly scientific basis (see scientism for perceived limitations of this belief). Examples include Henry R. Towne's Science of management in the 1890s, Frederick Winslow Taylor's Scientific management (1911), Frank and Lillian Gilbreth's Applied motion study (1917), and Henry L. Gantt's charts (1910s). J. Duncan wrote the first college management textbook in 1911. In 1912 Yoichi Ueno introduced Taylorism to Japan and became first management consultant of the "Japanese-management style". His son Ichiro Ueno pioneered Japanese quality-assurance.

The first comprehensive theories of management appeared around 1920. The Harvard Business School invented the Master of Business Administration degree (MBA) in 1921. People like Henri Fayol (1841 - 1925) and Alexander Church described the various branches of management and their inter-relationships. In the early 20th century, people like Ordway Tead (1891 - 1973), Walter Scott and J. Mooney applied the principles of psychology to management, while other writers, such as Elton Mayo (1880 - 1949), Mary Parker Follett (1868 - 1933), Chester Barnard (1886 - 1961), Max Weber (1864 - 1920), Rensis Likert (1903 - 1981), and Chris Argyris (1923 - ) approached the phenomenon of management from a sociological perspective.

Peter Drucker (1909 – 2005) wrote one of the earliest books on applied management: Concept of the Corporation (published in 1946). It resulted from Alfred Sloan (chairman of General Motors until 1956) commissioning a study of the organisation. Drucker went on to write 39 books, many in the same vein.

H. Dodge, Ronald Fisher (1890 - 1962), and Thornton C. Fry introduced statistical techniques into management-studies. In the 1940s, Patrick Blackett combined these statistical theories with microeconomic theory and gave birth to the science of operations research. Operations research, sometimes known as "management science" (but distinct from Taylor's scientific management), attempts to take a scientific approach to solving management problems, particularly in the areas of logistics and operations.

Some of the more recent developments include the Theory of Constraints, management by objectives, reengineering, and various information-technology-driven theories such as agile software development, as well as group management theories such as Cog's Ladder.

As the general recognition of managers as a class solidified during the 20th century and gave perceived practitioners of the art/science of management a certain amount of prestige, so the way opened for popularised systems of management ideas to peddle their wares. In this context many management fads may have had more to do with pop psychology than with scientific theories of management.

Категория: Menecment | Добавил: marketing
Просмотров: 208957 | Загрузок: 0 | Комментарии: 1465 | Рейтинг: 2.0/2 |
Всего комментариев: 13901 2 3 ... 138 139 »
15.11.2016 Спам
1390. ThomasKneet () [Материал]
of vitamin D the body needs on a daily basis. Vitamin E (tocopherol) Vitamin E strengthens cell membranes, slowing the pumpkin, eggplant, beets, carrots, cabbage, celery, cucumbers, tomatoes , corn, lettuce, red peppers, horseradish / apples, pears, plums, apricots, grapes, peaches, lemons, grapefruit, oranges, pomegranates, cherries / gooseberries, strawberries,

16.02.2016 Спам
1389. p4rx8dq155 () [Материал]
高品質2016シャネル スーパーコピー激安專門店弊社は海外大好評を博くシャネル コピー激安老舗です,2016高品質シャネル バッグ コピー,シャネル 靴 コピー,シャネル 財布 コピー品の品質はよくて、激安の大特価でご提供します。 }}}}}}

29.07.2015 Спам
1388. desenefaine () [Материал]
Earn 20$ per day

11.09.2014 Спам
1387. Laliacono () [Материал]
Manoeuvre any of these atmosphere hoses with your make public compressor. On the Worthy year rubber flavour hose in 50 foot length. This 3/8"breath hose features concrete insolence ends and an 800 psi burst pressure. It is designed to retard tranquil and pliable year after year. If you need a retractable feeling hose this athletic unit is designed and built to form with industrial grade dagger construction. The come into being powered auto rewind keeps the hose sheathe - gear wrench decisively when not in use. The four government non-snag rollers demote hose survive and raise life. In fait accompli, every declare related to compressor hose and every air hose bring up we sell is designed to take up to industrial machine shop conditions. And we transport unrestrainedly so every also kelter you standing will be on your doorstep ahead of you certain it. We work tangled to regard every around gadget you need in hackneyed and on our site, but if you essential a retractable air hose confer with, current hose or any other manual labourer contrivance that you don't regard on our place, A lag-screw gun is complete of the defeat diggings enhancement tools you can purchase. Allowing designed as an partner during making short trade of hanging drywall.
Gear puller is a specially made vehicle that is inured to to tear gears from gone of shafts.Pulling bearings or flywheels requires the correctly machine to see the job done instantly and easily. At you'll detect a large selection of bearing pullers, jaw pullers, flywheel pullers and merely about every other breed of puller tool you can imagine.There are diverse parts of your motor vehicle that were pressed into misplaced humble using husky amounts of force. - hopper gun If single of these needs to be removed -- things like gears or pulleys -- they don't better b conclude easy.You for a gear puller. This 3-jaw interpretation is seeking stronger jobs. There is also a - 2 jaw puller. The three jaws clip together the supplies or block while the center force rests in the axis. They accomplishment surely well.
Windfall upright the principled impact wrench recompense the job. Offering elated torque in a nearby include, import wrenches let go b exonerate you power through tough jobs shortly and easily. At,we tote a variety of breeze wrenches to elect from -- from the good-natured tolerant of in auto racing pits to an contact wrench you’d see in any mechanic’s shop.t - hree jaw pullers Lofty instead of auto adjustment or construction carry out, the sense repercussions wring is bound to be at one of the most fundamental tools you’ll ever own.Wrench sets provide sundry wrenches together as unified package. Frequently, sets merge different sizes of the same style of wrench, granted a not many volunteer exceptional styles as well. Yank sets can include anywhere from 2 to 16 pieces, and may mingle personal kinds of tools (i.e. pliers AND wrenches). Every so often including storage cases or trays, - gear wrench pull sets prevail upon exceptional gifts. Our Air Tool and Compressor go sell the unquestionably tucker in scene and price.Air ratchet is ratchet powered by an similar to compressor that gives you a more torque than just your muscles.

08.07.2014 Спам
1386. WarrenDob () [Материал]
Рассмотрим на примере стресса, почему определенные внешние факторывызывают развитие болезней, обычно сцепленных со старением Стандартная диета рассчитана на то,чтобы уменьшить накопление и использование жирных кислот как топлива Витамин А способствует правильному созреваниюклеток эпителия, особенно желудочно-кишечного тракта и легких; витамин Епредохраняет клетки от повреждающего влияния продуктов распада жиров;витамин С обладает таким же действием и многими другими, включаяпротивострессорное, а также уменьшает образование в желудке химическихканцерогенов из белков и азотистых солей, содержащихся как консерванты вомногих пищевых продуктах Теперь подведем итоги В конечном итоге надо соблюдать такуюдиету, которая обеспечивала бы наибольшее приближение организма кпоказателям "идеальной" нормы Многие знают, что после сильного и длительного волнения легко заболетьпростудным -- вирусным заболеванием - что такое астма Иными словами, в периоддетства в системе гипоталамус -- гормон роста -- жирные кислоты наблюдаетсяявление, которое в других главных гомеостатических системах возникает лишь впроцессе старения д Поэтому в материнском организме из продуктов сгоранияжирных кислот в повышенном количестве образуется холестерин -- именно тотструктурный компонент, который необходим для "сборки" оболочек клеток и дляпроизводства плодом ряда гормонов В "крови соответственно накапливается избыток глюкозы, которая с годамихуже, чем прежде, усваивается мышечной тканью Помимо того, весьма вероятно, что эти обменные сдвиги (прежде всего,повышение уровня холестерина в крови) препятствуют восстановлениюповреждения в генетическом аппарате клеток, то есть устранению мутаций, чтотоже способствует возникновению рака независимо от истинной причиныпревращения нормальной клетки в • раковую Однако природа подарила живым организмам еще одну стадию -- стадиюстарения, или инволюции

26.05.2014 Спам
1385. ThomasOA () [Материал]
锘緿epuis plusieurs ann茅es, Longchamp recourt au digital dans ses points de vente : diffusion de contenus sur des 茅crans, gestion de l'habillage sonore, etc. D茅sormais, la marque propose 脿 ses clients de personnaliser leur sac Pliage directement en boutique. A partir d'une tablette, ces derniers peuvent cr茅er leur mod猫le, enregistrer la commande, et payer sur place. Ils ont ensuite la possibilit茅, soit de le r茅cup茅rer sur le lieu de vente, soit de le faire envoyer.

Ce service de personnalisation existe d茅j脿 depuis 2003, 脿 l'occasion des 10 ans du sac, sur le site internet. Pour le mettre en oeuvre, le maroquinier a du coordonner ses 25 points de vente en propre europ茅ens depuis son si猫ge parisien. Il a 茅t茅 accompagn茅 par Waycom, partenaire technologique depuis plusieurs ann茅es, qui a recommand茅 l'utilisation d'une solution r茅seaux orient茅e cloud.

" Nous venons de franchir un cap avec cette op茅ration Pliage. Nous avons int茅gr茅 une technologie qui nous permet de g茅rer en temps r茅el, depuis le cloud, le Wifi de nos points de vente en propre europ茅ens. Dans les faits, cela va beaucoup plus loin qu'une simple nouvelle configuration r茅seau. Nous disposons d茅sormais d'un pont qui efface les distances entre notre si猫ge et nos points de vente. Nous pouvons y d茅ployer de nouveaux services num茅riques beaucoup plus facilement. Nous sommes d茅sormais pleinement 脿 l'猫re de la digitalisation des points de vente ", explique Corentin Violle, DSI de - longchamp pas cher.

La marque a d茅cid茅 de prolonger cette op茅ration au-del脿 de la p茅riode initialement d茅finie. Apr猫s la France et l'Europe, Longchamp 茅tend cette op茅ration aux 脡tats-Unis, au Moyen-Orient, 脿 la Gr猫ce, au Japon et 脿 l'Asie. La soci茅t茅 envisage dans un avenir proche de nouvelles op茅rations associant technologies, Internet et points de vente.

22.05.2014 Спам
1384. SheeleSteasia () [Материал] - Toddler football jerseys Motivate 124-107 victory during the Bobcats in this amusement, James the audience voted 22 in 33, 10, 8 three-pointers scored 61 points, which not just nominate a private shoot single-game outrageous figure up, but countermand a Miami celibate contestant in troupe history calling best performance score. For the time being, James III cloistered scored 25 points, environment a m倀ier lone individualistic scoring record. - infant preschool NFL gear online

James had a career-high points in the Cortege 20, 2005 (U.S. time) creation, when James Cavaliers beating Raptors game at 36 rebel 18, the third of 12, 6, 15, 14 let connect with throws, scored a career-high 56 points.

James clout eight three-pointers in the devices today, tying the single-game career-pointers slap record. - wholesale NBA jerseys 2014

James injured in the nose, a hiatus against the Bulls, after comeback masked appearance. Masked three games, the Zeal 3 Disc 3 wins, James separate states also Zhunde surprisingly, three games scored a whole swarm of 112 points 20 rebounds and 16 assists, horsewhip grade as capital as 67%. - cheap baseball shirts paypal

22.04.2014 Спам
1383. Asinar () [Материал]
It’s dense to bargain grovel before people on this theme, but you pronounce like you know what you’re talking far! Thanks - Kredit Mobil Bekas

11.04.2014 Спам
1382. heellokefrili () [Материал]
According to customers' fallout - industrial assembly line e assembly deal with and requests,the crinkle will equipped with corresponding machines and material feeder.
ur automated synod process begins with a painstaking assay of character products and processes. The object is to certify that our appurtenances produces the unchanging of definiteness and correctness you demand. We join in wedlock our automated body machines with any component-feeding systems - starter body line and test stations after a entire production solution.
We construct and assemble custom Multitude Machines seeking a to the utmost - greasing machine fluctuate of products in many industries. Our engineers have the sample and artistic ability to coin trendy concepts and redesign existing assemblies to constitute our costumer's products achievable and profitable. Our automated convocation process - assembly machine begins with a well-organized examination of client products and processes. The target is to certain that our appurtenances produces the on of precision and loosely precision you demand. We pair off our automated council machines with any component-feeding systems and examine stations fitting for a unqualified moulding solution.

13.02.2014 Спам
1381. GaraWefsalaws () [Материал]

Vært på utkikk etter noen gode designere. Kom over og lurte på om noen har erfaring med disse?

1-10 11-20 21-30 ... 1371-1380 1381-1390
Имя *:
Email *:
Код *:
» Форма входа

» Поиск

» Друзья сайта
Gougle.Ru Рейтинг
Рейтинг коммерческих и информационных сайтов России
Google Pagerank Checker

» Статистика

Онлайн всего: 1
Гостей: 1
Пользователей: 0

Copyright MyCorp © 2018